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1. Lichens: A partnership for life. (abstract)

2. Lichens: A study in color. (abstract)

3. Lichens at VACRC: Lichen surfaces under the electron microscope. (abstract)

4. Lichens in cross section: Evidence for design and against macroevolution. (abstract)

5. The ultrastructure of lichen cells supports creation, not macroevolution —Part I.

6. The ultrastructure of lichen cells supports creation, not macroevolution —Part II.

7. The saguaro: God’s desert sentry.

8. A new report of unique features in the peristome of [the moss] Fumaria hygrometrica

9. Five features correlate with seed weight in Yucca plants to support a seed-dispersal hypothesis

10. Design in Diatom Cell Walls

11. Candelilla plants show design and typology

12. Plant survival and the great Flood

13. Horsetail plants support design not evolution

14. Homology analogy in Plants

15. Homology and origins

16. The origin of flowering plants

17. Diatoms magnified

18. Moss magnified

19. Moss magnified

20. Probo magnified

21. Spines magnified

22. The Last Young Earth Creationist

23. Desert Plant Literature Demonstrates God's Creation

24. The Nature of Nio-Darwinian Criticism of the Young Earth Creationists.  by Professor James Owen.

Greetings from George and Mark at We are two botanists who are critical of all evolution theories and we think instead that Bible creation passages are scientifically accurate. Precise botanical details in science demonstrate God’s craftsmanship and show the various shortcomings of neo-Darwinian macroevolutionism.

Our papers and abstracts are available here free of charge. They show that evolution surely does “flunk” when it comes to explaining the origin of various phenomena studied in the science of botany. Remarks and comments may be sent to or to

Free copies of our original research papers and abstracts listed here are available by simply downloading from this web site. MoreĽ


George F. Howe

He earned the Ph.D. degree in botany (plant physiology) from the Ohio State University, studying the time-course of photosynthesis in leaves of various flowering plants. He has taught many different science courses in two Christian colleges where he was a professor of biology for over 42 years. He has been a member of the Creation Research Society since its inception and a member of its board for 41 years, holding such CRS Board offices as president, vice president, and secretary. For five years he served as editor of the CRS Quarterly and four years as its managing editor.

He has published numerous technical papers on botany in the CRS Quarterly, the Journal of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, the Journal of the Ohio Academy of Sciences, and Crossosoma. He continues research on plants such as the unicorn plant, also known as devil's claw. He is a scientific creationist who believes that general macroevolutionism will someday lose its "luster" when workers come to see that it has little predictive value and only very meager support in the sciences.

Mark H. Armitage

Mark H. Armitage grew up in a military family and lived in Venezuela and Puerto Rico for 15 years. He became a Christian when he was a college senior, studying plant pathology at the University of Florida, and his family withdrew support from him. He then entered a career in microscopy with firms such as Olympus Corporation of America and Carl Zeiss selling over $30 Million in microscopy equipment across the Southeast, the Caribbean and Southern California. In 1984 he founded a microscope sales and service company and has been in business for 25 years. He also went back to school and earned a BS in Education from Liberty University and an MS in Biology (parasitology), under Richard Lumsden (Ph.D. Rice and Dean of Tulane University’s graduate program) at the Institute for Creation Research.

He later graduated Ed.S. in Science Education from Liberty University and is a doctoral candidate there. He was awarded a US patent for an optical inspection device in 1993. Mark taught botany, genetics lab and medical microbiology at Master’s College, and Biology 101 lab and electron microscopy at Azusa Pacific University over a 9-year period. He served as Executive Director of the Bible-Science Association, LA chapter from 1993-2000. He is a lifetime member of the Creation Research Society where he has served on the Board of Directors since 2006. He was recently elected to the position of Financial Secretary of the Society. Additionally, Mark has served on the Board of Directors of the Southern California Society for Microscopy and Micro-analysis since 2000 and has been President of the Society for 4 years. For five years, Mark maintained a working electron microscopy laboratory (SEM and TEM) at the Institute for Creation Research in San Diego. Recently he moved his laboratory to the Creation Research Society Van Andel Creation Research Center in AZ.

Mark’s micrographs have appeared on the covers of eleven scientific journals, and he has many technical publications on microscopic phenomena in such journals as American Laboratory, Southern California Academy of Sciences Bulletin, Parasitology Research, Microscopy and Micro-analysis, and Microscopy Today among others. He has received national recognition for his micrographs in the Nikon Small World annual competition. He recently authored the book; Jesus is like my scanning electron microscope.
Mark is a member of the Microscopy Society of America, the Southern California Academy of Sciences and the American Society of Parasitologists.

If you would like to receive the full text of a paper abstracted here, published reprints of any of the articles, or complete CD’s of the CRS Quarterly, these all can be purchased from Creation Research Society, 6801 N. Highway 89, Chino Valley, AZ 86323.

Keep checking this list as we intend to add articles periodically.

We can be reached via the following: or